What You Need to Know About Vomiting

Although nausea and vomiting can make you feel miserable, it's important to remember that these are not diseases, but rather symptoms of many illnesses.

Nausea is a feeling of uneasiness in the stomach often tied to an urge to vomit. Nausea doesn't always lead to vomiting, however. Vomiting is the emptying of the contents of the stomach through the mouth.

Typical triggers

These are some of the more common causes of nausea and vomiting:

  • Gastroenteritis, an inflammation of the digestive tract most often caused by a viral or bacterial infection

  • Migraine headaches

  • Motion sickness

  • Peptic ulcers

  • Medicines or medical treatments, such as chemotherapy

  • Hormonal changes, such as those that lead to morning sickness during pregnancy

  • Food poisoning or food intolerance

  • Poisons, toxins, or chemicals in the blood, such as alcohol

  • Head injury

  • Gallstones

  • Stress and excitement in children ages 2 to 6

These are less common causes. Some examples are:

  • Brain tumor

  • Reye syndrome

  • Blockage of the bowel

  • Pancreatitis, or other inflammation in the abdomen such as diverticulitis and appendicitis

  • Inflammatory bowel disease

  • Delayed stomach emptying

  • Gynecologic problems

  • Eating disorder

What to do for nausea

Here are ideas on how to ease nausea:

  • Drink clear or ice cold beverages.

  • Sip beverages slowly.

  • Eat saltine crackers, plain bread, and other bland foods.

  • Avoid foods that are fried or sweet.

  • Eat slowly.

  • Eat smaller meals.

  • Wait a while after eating before exercising or doing other vigorous activity.

  • Don't brush your teeth immediately after a meal.

If these suggestions don't ease your nausea, talk with your healthcare provider.

What to do for vomiting

Children become dehydrated more quickly than adults do. If your child is vomiting, ask your healthcare provider how to help your child feel better.

If you are vomiting, try these tips:

  • Take a break from solid food, even if you feel like eating.

  • Stay hydrated by sucking on ice chips or frozen fruit pops, and drinking sips of water, weak tea, clear soft drinks without carbonation, noncaffeinated sports drinks, or broth. Sugary drinks may calm the stomach better than other liquids.

  • Temporarily stop taking oral medicines because these can make vomiting worse.

  • Slowly add bland foods. If you've been able to drink some fluids and haven't thrown up for 6 to 8 hours, try eating small amounts of foods such as bananas, rice, applesauce, unbuttered toast, dry crackers, or dry cereal.

  • Once you're back on solid food, eat small meals every few hours. This helps your stomach digest food slowly.

  • Avoid strong odors, such as tobacco smoke, perfumes, or cooking smells.

  • Avoid dairy products, tobacco, and alcohol. They may irritate your stomach.

  • Get plenty of rest.

Vomiting that is caused by drug therapy, surgery, or radiation therapy may be treated by taking a different medicine. Medicines are also available to treat vomiting in pregnancy and other conditions. Talk with your healthcare provider about what’s best for you.

When to seek medical care

See your healthcare provider if your vomiting doesn't ease with self-care within 24 hours, or if you become dehydrated. Symptoms of dehydration include extreme thirst, dry mouth, little or no urination, and dizziness, or lightheadedness.

See your healthcare provider right away if any of the following signs or symptoms occur:

  • Blood in the vomit

  • Severe headache or stiff neck

  • Lethargy

  • Confusion or decreased alertness

  • Severe abdominal pain

  • Vomiting with fever above 101°F (38°C)

  • Vomiting and diarrhea are both present

  • Rapid breathing or pulse

Take your child to the healthcare provider right away if any of the following signs or symptoms occur:

Child younger than age 6

  • Vomiting lasts more than a few hours

  • Diarrhea also occurs

  • Your child becomes dehydrated

  • Your child has a fever above 100°F (37.8°C)

  • Your child hasn't urinated or wet a diaper in 4 to 6 hours

Child age 6 and older

  • Vomiting lasts more than one day

  • Diarrhea and vomiting last more than 24 hours

  • Your child becomes dehydrated

  • Your child has a fever above 101°F (38°C)

  • Your child hasn’t urinated in 6 hours

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